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mrocar | English | dissabte, 8 de desembre de 2007 | 20:17h
WAR OF SUCCESSION: A Chronology of the genocide and repression from France and Spain against Catalonia. 2/4/1700: France outlaws the Catalan language: "The Sun-king" decrees the French language as the only legal language. The Catalonian peasant population remains legally unprotected because they do not know the imperial language.20/10/1700: The king of Castile and Aragon / Catalonia, Carlos II, drafts his last will in favor of the Duke of Anjou, totally violating the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) between Madrid and Paris, which explicitly excluded any rights from the French Royal Dynasty over any Spanish crowns through marriage; the Duke is Carlos II's nephew by marriage.1700-1713:"The Academy of the Distrusted ones" works, founded as a literary institution, made up of writers who stood out against Bourbonism, those such as P.L.Dalmases, Boixadors, Pinós, Rocabertí, etc...

1/11/1700: Carlos II dies without any direct heirs. He was the last Spanish Habsburg monarch.N. Feliu de la Penya writes: "Carlos II...chose the Duke of Anjou... to the amazement of the Catalonians...it gave rise to the occasion for suspicion and deception" ("Anales"). Just like when the Barcelona Dynasty ended without any direct heirs and the Castilian Dynasty of the Trastamara seized the Catalonian crown (1412) in violation of signed treaties, so now does a French anti-Catalonian Dynasty seize the Spanish crowns in violation of signed treaties.8/11/1700: News about his death arrives in Paris when the "Sun-King" is out hunting with “his ladies". Upon finding this out, he calls upon the Duke of Anjou (the future "Felipe V"), his son, and the grandson of Felipe IV (Carlos II's father and an enemy of the Catalonians during the Reapers' War). From that point on, the Duke bears the title of the great medieval enemies of Catalonia, “Anjou”; he is "a man of no intelligence, unpredictable mood swings, apathetic...completely insensitive to the misery and pain of fellow human beings, and wicked. He might have been cruel, if he were not so apathetic and engrossed in his obesity and obscurity" (St. Simon). Hence, he was a lazy psychopath who never made any attempt to speak the Castilian language properly. He is the great-great-grandfather of the great-great-grandfather of Juan Carlos I, the present Spanish king.11/11/1700: Manuel Oms de Santa Pau, ambassador from Madrid in Paris, and Marquis of Castelldosrius tell the Duke in Castilian:"...the Pyrenees have sunk". The Duke understood nothing despite the fact that his mother is a Castilian Queen. 16/11/1700: King Louis XIV, “the Tyrant”, appoints his son “Emperor over all of Spain” [and its territories].1700-1717: Decrees from the French absolute monarchy impose French as the only official language of the Courts and notaries in Northern Catalonia (under military French occupation since the Reapers war half a century earlier).18/2/1701: The Duke arrives in Madrid, where he is proclaimed “King of Castile” as “Felipe V”.1701: French traders take over control of Valencian trading (the Kingdom of Valencia is in the region of southern Catalonia). The lower-class people accuse them of getting rich at their expense. Anti-French sentiment spreads among the Valencian lower clergy.9/1701: The Great Alliance (England, Holland, and the Austrian Empire) meets at The Hague; they nominate the Archduke Karl as pretender to King of Spain, since they feared that the French and Spanish union would cause great instability and an uneven distribution of European power.2/10/1701: The Duke of Anjou meets with the Catalonian Parliament and swears in their laws and liberties.10/1701: The Duke is appointed King of Catalonia as "Felip IV" in Catalonia ("Felipe V" in Castile).At the end of 1701: France invades Holland.3/1702: The Great Alliance declares war on France and FelipeV.1703: Emperor Leopold proclaims the Archduke Karl as king of Spain in Vienna. Prussia, Savoy, and Portugal join the Alliance1703-1704: Felipe V favors French monopoly over trade in his kingdoms.Spring.1704: In Vienna, initial contacts take place between the British representative Mitford Crowe and Antoni de Peguera i Aimerich (lord of Foix and Torrelles and a member of the Distrusters' Academy) and the attorney, Domènec Perera, Catalonian representatives.5/1704: Before Barcelona, 1600 allied marines land. "Vigatans" (a small anti-Bourbon nobility from Vic, in Central Catalonia) had to open the doors for them, but the conspiracy is uncovered and they have to flee through Gibraltar. The allied Army is under the command of the prince from Hessen-Darmstadt, the last remaining Lieutenant General in Catalonia under Carlos II and very popular among the Catalonians. Bourbon repression, imprisonment.1704: In Portugal, the Archduke lands and the war mobilizes on the peninsula. A decisive battle in Blenheim: the Alliance kicks the French Armies out of Germany, which is the beginning of the crumbling of Louis XIV's enormous power.4/8/1704: The Valencian Gen. Basset and Catalonian volunteers facilitate the allied occupation of Gibraltar, lead by the Adm. Rooke. In Gibraltar, there is still a "Catalonian Bay". Expulsion of the indigenous population to Algesiras Bay.17/5/1705: The military Moragues and other "Vigatans" and important officials grant powers to Ll.D.Domènec Perera enabling Catalonia to enter the anti-Bourbon alliance.5/1705: The anti-Bourbon uprising starts on the plains of the city of Vic.2/6/1705: Geneva Pact: An Alliance's treaty between the plenipotentiaries A. De Peguera and Dr. Perera (Catalonia) and Mr. Mitford Crowe (England). London promises 8000 soldiers, 2000 cavalry, ammunition and total support to the Catalonian liberties. Catalonia promises the support of its Parliament´s members and of the "Council of Hundred", and 6000 men.20/7/1705: The allied fleet arrives in Barcelona. Propaganda is in favor of the Archduke.21/7/1705: Vigatans openly march to Barcelona on his way gathering supporters.4/8/1705: Catalonian is victorious with only 250 men against the 1000 foot-soldiers and 100 riders of the Bourbon viceroy.10/8/1705: The Anglo-Dutch fleet lands in Altea (Valencian Kingdom or Southern Catalonia). Basset and Francesc Garcia land along with them: the first, coming from other battles, the second, exiled from a former agrarian revolt.16/8/1705: Allies enter Alzira and nearby Valencia.17/8/1705: Basset lands in Dénia where the Archduke is announced as the new Valencian King.Since 8/1705: The Valencian peasantry, after being oppressed by the lordships' abusive taxes, support the Pro-Austrians, who promise them better conditions. They take the name of "Maulets" (a diminutive of "Mawla", slave in Arabic), a name already taken by the rebellious peasantry in the Valencian Kingdom some years prior. Basset is the brave radical military hero of these deprived peoples.24/8/1705: Moragues and 800 men show up in Barcelona.8/1705: Allied landing in Barcelona.14/9/1705: Allied attack on Montjuïc.15/9/1705: Second allied bombardment on Barcelona.9/10/1705: Barcelona surrenders to Charles Mondaunt, count of Petersborough.12/10/1705: Girona surrenders. Bourbon troops retreat to France.7/11/1705: The Archduke formally enters Barcelona: he swears to grant Catalonian freedoms.11/1705: Representatives from every Catalonian land, including Catalonian Aragon (even Monzon/Montsó) and the Valencian North come to pay homage to the Archduke. Pro-Austrian conspiracy in Northern Catalonia (under French occupation).11 to 12/1705: Almost all Central Catalonia surrenders to the Allies. British occasionally help conquer some strongholds like Tarragona.15/12/1705: Basset with 500 countrymen and 300 riders arrives in Valencia. Bourbon followers ("botiflers" in Catalan, from "Beautiful+flowers") lack means to defend attacks. Prisoners riot.16/12/1705: The lower class people go out into the streets in Valencia to jeer at the privileged ones and show their favor for the Archduke. Some prominent men imprison the Bourbon Viceroy and open the town doors for Basset to enter. In St. Mateu (Valencian North) the British General Jones arrives.18/12/1705: Surrender of St. Mateu. The allied siege on Peníscola (Val.North) begins.12/1705: Valencian "botiflers" are exiled. "Maulets" and Allied control most of the Valencian Kingdom, and Basset takes over the government.12/1705 to 3/1706: The Catalonian Parliament request that the Archduke (Charles III) recover Northern Catalonia, which is still under French occupation, and reestablish American trade, which had been completely monopolized by the Castilians.12/1/1706: The Castilian army of the Count de las Torres is defeated at St. Mateu and descends through the South. They attack Vila-real, a Maulet villa near by Castelló: they sack the town and its churches, slit the throats of civilians and set the villa on fire. 272 inhabitants die (among them 7 priests and 7 women) and they take with them more than 200 prisoners. However, more than 500 Castilian soldiers also die there on account of the brave civilian defense.2/1706: The British Gen. Petersborough arrives in Valencia and replaces Basset, judged too radical. The new viceroy demands feudal taxation again.3/1706: Bourbon troops attack Central Catalonia.4/1706: Defending Barcelona, 50 Allied warships force the French fleet to retreat .2/7/1706: Charles III triumphantly enters Madrid with Catalonian soldiers ("miquelets"), and is received with great repulsion from the Empire’s capital city’s long-standing and deep-seeded anti-Catalonian animosity10/7/1706: Charles III has to retreat from Madrid to Aragon. Basset is accused of abuses while defending Xàtiva from the Bourbon troops, and Petersborough throws him in prison.7/1706: Charles III is in Zaragoza. Felipe V returns to Madrid. Valencians demonstrate popular indignation for Basset's imprisonment.29/9/1706: The Anglo-Dutch fleet shows up in Majorca Bay. 9/1706: Popular anti-Bourbon pressure in Majorca.10/1706: Charles III confiscates the Valencian botiflers' properties. Expulsion of French citizens and exile of nobility from Majorca. Cartagena (in the ancient Murcian Kingdom under Castilian occupation), where Catalan was still spoken, is occupied by Botiflers. Luís Belluga, the Bishop in Cartagena, is a pro-Bourbon fanatic.11/10/1706: Belluga's Castilians occupy Oriola (Southern Valencian Kingdom), where they will persecute the Catalan language: now, no one speaks Catalan there).21/10/1706: The offensive against southern Valencian continues: the Duke of Berwick sacks and overtakes Elx by force. 10/1706: Menorca and Eivissa surrender to the Allies. A "Maulet" uprising in Plana (Castelló countryside).4/1707: Anglo-Dutch-Portuguese counter offensive against the Castilian border near the Southern Valencia.25/4/1707: Decisive battle at Almansa (La Mancha, near the Valencian Kingdom). 25000 Allies against 25000 French-Castilians. Allies retreat with 500 dead and 12000 prisoners. This serious defeat leaves València almost defenseless facing the Bourbons. Today, there remains a popular Valencian saying that goes: "When evil comes from Almansa, it hits everybody.”5/1707:French-Spanish troops march towards València, so Basset is finally released from the prison of Lleida (West-central Catalonia) to organize the Valencian resistance.8/5/1707: The Duke of Berwick arrives in València. The city is declared liberated, and the surrender of Zaragoza is announced.12/5/1707: Berwick arrives in Castelló de la Plana where he imposes an excessive war reparations tax and knocks down the city walls.6/6/1707: Xàtiva (near València) surrenders, after a long siege.19/6/1707: The Lieutenant General d' Asfeld sends orders to set fire and destroy Xàtiva, a large city dating to the Middle Ages. This genocide leaves a profound psychological and significant impact along with the expulsion of more than 18000 citizens from Xàtiva and the changing of its name from its former Roman name to "San Felipe" in honor of the tyrant (until 1811). Even today, there still remains an official painting of Felipe V hanging upside down in Xàtiva .29/6/1707: Felipe V signs the "Nueva Planta" decree against the Kingdoms of València and Aragon, which he considers "conquered", and he declares their ancient parliamentary laws abolished "...because the just right of conquer over them my weapons have made lately". Nevertheless, Maulets still control the Valencian North and the Alcoi-Alacant-Dénia triangle in southern Valencia.1707: The high clergy, Botiflers, the ultra-papists, as well as the Jesuits in Catalonia are quite often Castilians, but the lower clergy are strongly pro-Austrian. They often mediate between conspiracies, prisoners and Allies, besides of inducing the people to the Archduke favor. Naples-Sicily cede to the Archduke, and Menorca cedes to the Bourbons. Scottish independence ends with the "Covenant", a voluntary union treaty with England.30/9/1707: Felipe V donates Llíria, Xèrica, Barracas, etc., (free towns) to the Duke of Berwick.14/10/1707: Lleida surrenders to the invaders.11/1707: Fall of Tàrrega, Cervera, and El Pla d' Urgell (West-central Catalonia).9/1/1708: After a heavy siege, Alcoi falls with many executions, reprisals, and the abolition of local laws and the local festivities to honor St. George, patron saint of Catalonia.1708: A very unstable military situation in northern Valencia. D' Asfeld, the arsonist of Xàtiva, controls the Audience (provincial court) of València as an instrument of foreign military occupation.11/7/1708: Bourbon troops occupy Tortosa (south-central Catalonia).7/1708: The Allies take over the island of Sardinia.17/9/1708: The Anglo-Dutch fleet of Adm. Leake commanded by Gen. Stanhope easily regains the island of Menorca (East Catalonia).17/11/1708: Spaniards occupy Dénia.12/1708: Alacant (Alicante in Spanish) is occupied by the British who blow up part of the castle defenses. It is besieged by D'Asfeld.7/12/1708: Spaniards occupy Alacant. Only guerillas remain throughout the Valencian Kingdom. 1709: Famine spreads throughout the Valencian Kingdom as a result of the war taxes. Valencian botiflers despise the new Castilian laws and send representatives to reinstate their ancient laws, they are imprisoned. Narcís Feliu de la Penya publishes "Anales", a story about the war, which is confiscated by the Bourbon censorship. War breaks out in Cerdanya (Pyrenees). The Allies are victorious (Malplaquet...): Louis XIV is left so weakened that he abandons his son and almost surrenders.1/7/1709: Salvador Feliu (Narcís' brother) and other tradesmen (one of them a resident of Gibraltar) found the New Company of Gibraltar in Barcelona to break the Cadiz monopoly on American trade.1710: A second demand for reestablishing Valencia’s own laws. It is overturned by a Court controlled by Castilians.5/7/1710: An insurrectional attack failed in the city of València. 4 British warships show up and cannot land due to lack of popular support.7/1710: Battle of Almenara (North near València), where Felipe V is about to die.27/7/1710: Catalonian victory in Almenar (near Lleida).8/9/1710: New Maulet uprising in northern Valencia.28/9/1710: Charles III retakes Madrid.23/10/1710: The Bourbon Col. Ibáñez shoots 41 "miquelets" (pro-Austrian Catalonian soldiers) imprisoned in Altura (northwest Valencian Kingdom).29/10/1710: Pro-Austrians bombard Morella (northern Valencia).
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